SAN FRANCISCO Cheap Anders Bjork Shirt , Sept. 10 (Xinhua) -- A new study challenges along-held assumption in psychology that most human emotions fallwithin the universal categories of happiness, sadness, anger,surprise, fear and disgust.
Using statistical models to analyze the responses of 853 men andwomen, who are demographically diverse, to 2,185 emotionallyevocative video clips, University of California, Berkeley,researchers have identified 27 distinct categories of emotion andcreated a multidimensional map to show how they're connected.
Moreover, in contrast to the notion that each emotional state isan island, the study published in the early edition of theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal indicatesthat there are smooth gradients of emotion between, for instance,awe and peacefulness, horror and sadness, and amusement andadoration.
""We don't get finite clusters of emotions in the map becauseeverything is interconnected,"" study lead author Alan Cowen, adoctoral student in neuroscience at UC Berkeley, was quoted asexplaining in a news release.
For the study, the study participants went online to view arandom sampling of silent 5- to-10-second videos intended to evokea broad range of emotions. Themes from the video clips includedbirths and babies, weddings and proposals, death and suffering,spiders and snakes, physical pratfalls and risky stunts, sexualacts, natural disasters, wondrous nature and awkwardhandshakes.
Three separate groups of participants watched sequences ofvideos, and, after viewing each clip, completed a reportingtask.
The first group freely reported their emotional responses toeach of 30 video clips. ""Their responses reflected a rich andnuanced array of emotional states, ranging from nostalgia tofeeling 'grossed out,'"" noted Cowen.
The second group ranked each video according to how strongly itmade them feel admiration, adoration, aesthetic appreciation,amusement, anger, anxiety, awe, awkwardness, boredom, calmness,confusion, contempt, craving, disappointment, disgust, empathicpain, entrancement, envy, excitement, fear, guilt, horror,interest, joy, nostalgia, pride, relief, romance, sadness,satisfaction, sexual desire, surprise, sympathy and triumph. Theparticipants converged on similar responses, with more than half ofthem reporting the same category of emotion for each video.
The final cohort rated their emotional responses on a scale of 1to 9 to each of a dozen videos based on such dichotomies aspositive versus negative, excitement versus calmness, and dominanceversus submissiveness. Researchers were able to predict howparticipants would score the videos based on how previousparticipants had assessed the emotions the videos elicited.
Overall, the results showed that study participants generallyshared the same or similar emotional responses to each of thevideos, providing a wealth of data that allowed the researchers toidentify 27 distinct categories of emotion.
Through statistical modeling and visualization techniques, theresearchers organized the emotional responses to each video into asemantic atlas of human emotions. On the map, each of the 27distinct categories of emotion corresponds to a particularcolor.
""We found that 27 distinct dimensions, not six, were necessaryto account for the way hundreds of people reliably reported feelingin response to each video,"" said study senior author DacherKeltner, a UC Berkeley psychology professor and expert on thescience of emotions. Enditem
by Denis Elamu
JUBA, Sept. 8 (Xinhua) -- South Sudanese local film industry, though still nascent, is slowly growing following the launch of the annual film festival last year, which encourages production of films reflecting the country's culture.
Most movies at this year's festival, which opened on Tuesday, are works of young men and women inspired by their country's turbulent past and present that also includes social, cultural complexities like early child marriage and domestic violence.
Wilma Poni, 22, a budding actress and also student of accounting and finance at Juba University, plays a supporting role in the drama ""Dollar"" depicting the scarcity of hard currency in the prevailing economic hardship in the country.
Poni told Xinhua in Juba Thursday that she has sought inspiration from the current challenges.
""I started acting in 2014. At that time we had an event on peace following eruption of conflict in our country. There are a lot of problems like the shortage of U.S. dollars, we started to make fun of it,"" she said.
The other movie in which Poni stars, Tears of Street Kids, is currently a nominee in this year's second annual film festival organized by Juba Film Limited.
""When some people watch the film, they will be inspired to work hard,"" she said, adding that South Sudanese movies could soon compete on the regional scene.
According to John Thomas, one of the directors at Juba Film Limited, this year there has been improvement in the quality of the photos and production among the 32 local movies and 37 foreign movies being screened.
She disclosed that movies from DR Congo, Tanzania, Rwanda, Tanzania, France, Sweden and Germany with similar cultural connection to South Sudanese experience will compete in the Saturday award ceremony.
""There is big progress. The stories are nice, the screen and the scenery is very nice. After this one we are looking to improve further next year,"" Thomas told Xinhua.
Charles Sebit, a 33-year-old actor and film producer, said part of his work involves highlighting violence against women, and educating the population on the dangers of cholera, in the wake of the watery diarrhea disease killing hundreds.
Sebit earned an award at last year's annual film festival. He added that despite some improvement on the film quality, eyeing regional competit There is not. Roquan Smith Jersey Richard Sherman Jersey Patrick Mahomes Jersey Nick Foles Womens Jersey Leonard Fournette Womens Jersey Kirk Cousins Youth Jersey Josh Rosen Youth Jersey Josh Allen Kids Jersey J.J. Watt Kids Jersey James Conner Kids Jersey